Smarter Balanced assessments will go beyond multiple-choice questions to include extended response and technology enhanced items, as well as performance tasks that allow students to demonstrate critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Performance tasks challenge students to apply their knowledge and skills to respond to complex real-world problems. They can best be described as collections of questions and activities that are coherently connected to a single theme or scenario. These activities are meant to measure capacities such as depth of understanding, writing and research skills, and complex analysis, which cannot be adequately assessed with traditional assessment questions. The performance tasks will be taken on a computer (but will not be computer adaptive) and will take one to two class periods to complete. Smarter Balanced capitalizes on the precision and efficiency of computer adaptive testing (CAT). This approach represents a significant improvement over traditional paper-and-pencil assessments used in many states today, providing more accurate scores for all students across the full range of the achievement continuum.
Assessment System Components
- A summative assessment administered during the last 12 weeks of the school year. The summative assessment will consist of two parts: a computer adaptive test and performance tasks that will be taken on a computer, but will not be computer adaptive. The summative assessment will:
- Accurately describe both student achievement and growth of student learning as part of program evaluation and school, district, and state accountability systems;
- Provide valid, reliable, and fair measures of students’ progress toward, and attainment of the knowledge and skills required to be college- and career-ready; and
- Capitalize on the strengths of computer adaptive testing—efficient and precise measurement across the full range of achievement and quick turnaround of results.
- More information about the development of summative assessment is available in the Summative Assessment Work Plan.
- Optional interim assessments administered at locally determined intervals. These assessments will provide educators with actionable information about student progress throughout the year. Like the summative assessment, the interim assessments will be computer adaptive and includes performance tasks. The interim assessments will:
- Help teachers, students, and parents understand whether students are on track, and identify strengths and limitations in relation to the Common Core State Standards;
- Be fully accessible for instruction and professional development (non-secure); and
- Support the development of state end-of-course tests.
- Formative assessment practices and strategies are the basis for a digital library of professional development materials, resources, and tools aligned to the Common Core State Standards and Smarter Balanced claims and assessment targets. Research-based instructional tools will be available on-demand to help teachers address learning challenges and differentiate instruction. The digital library will include professional development materials related to all components of the assessment system, such as scoring rubrics for performance tasks.
- More information about the development of formative assessment tools and resources is available in the Formative Assessment Work Plan.
- A secure, online reporting system that provides assessment results to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. The reports will show student achievement and progress toward mastery of the Common Core State Standards. Learn more about the development of the Smarter Balanced reporting system.
Summative Test Blueprints
The Smarter Balanced summative test blueprints describe the content of the English language arts/literacy and mathematics summative assessments for grades 3–8 and high school—and how that content will be assessed. Developed with broad input from member states, partners, and stakeholders, the summative test blueprints reflect the depth and breadth of the performance expectations of the Common Core State Standards. Smarter Balanced Governing States adopted the preliminary test blueprints in November 2012 and the summative test blueprints reflect refinements and revisions after the analysis of the Pilot and Field Tests. The test blueprints include critical information about the number of items, score points, and depth of knowledge for items associated with each assessment target. They will continue to guide the development of items and performance tasks, score reporting, and ongoing research.
- ELA/Literacy Smarter Balanced Summative Assessment Blueprint (PDF) (DocX)
- Mathematics Smarter Balanced Summative Assessment Blueprint (PDF) (DocX)
- Estimated Testing Times (PDF)
Smarter Balanced is developing content specifications in English language arts/literacy and mathematics to ensure that the assessments cover the range of knowledge and skills in the Common Core State Standards. Once finalized, the content specifications will serve as the basis for the Smarter Balanced system of summative and interim assessments and formative assessment support for teachers. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond, Smarter Balanced Senior Research Advisor and professor of education at the Stanford University School of Education, led the development of the content specifications in collaboration with experts in the field. The Smarter Balanced Technical Advisory Committee, Consortium work groups, and the lead authors of the Common Core State Standards also contributed to the documents. Hundreds of organizations and individual stakeholders provided feedback during two rounds of public comment.
Item and performance task specifications provide guidance on how to translate the Smarter Balanced Content Specifications into actual assessment items. In addition, guidelines for bias and sensitivity, accessibility and accommodations, and style help item developers and reviewers ensure consistency and fairness across the item bank. The specifications and guidelines were reviewed by member states, school districts, higher education, and other stakeholders.
Introduction and Overview
- Smarter Balanced Bibliography (PDF)
- Overview of Research Supporting the Use of Performance Tasks in Assessment (PDF)
English Language Arts/Literacy Item Specification
- ELA CAT Item Specs Grades 3-5 (ZIP) (8/4/15)
- ELA CAT Item Specs Grades 6-8 (ZIP) (8/4/15)
- ELA CAT Item Specs Grades 9-11 (ZIP) ( 8/4/15)
- ELA PT Item Specs Opinion Grades 3-5 (ZIP) (7/29/15)
- ELA PT Item Specs Narrative Grades 3-5 (ZIP) (7/29/15)
- ELA PT Item Specs Informative Grades 3-5 (ZIP) (7/29/15)
- ELA PT Item Specs Narrative Grades 6-8 (ZIP) (7/29/15)
- ELA PT Item Specs Explanatory Grades 6-8,11 (ZIP) (7/29/15)
- ELA PT Item Specs Argumentative Grades 6-8,11 (ZIP) (7/29/15)
- Performance Task Writing Rubric:
- Brief Write Rubrics (PDF)
- Performance Task Conventions Scoring Chart (PDF)
- ELA Stimulus Specifications (PDF)
- ELA Construct Relevant Vocabulary (PDF)
- Mathematics CAT Item Specs Grades 3-5 (ZIP)
- Mathematics CAT Item Specs Grades 6-8 (ZIP)
- Mathematics CAT Item Specs High School (ZIP)
- Mathematics PT Item Specs All Grades (PDF) (5/27/14)
- Smarter Balanced Mathematics General Rubrics (PDF) (DocX)
- General Accessibility Guidelines (PDF)
- ELA Audio Guidelines (PDF)
- Formulas & Conversions Guidelines (PDF)
- Calculator Availability by Grade Level (PDF)
- Mathematics Audio Guidelines (PDF)
- Scoring Guide for Selected Short-Text Mathematics Items (PDF)
- Scoring Guide for ELA Full Writes (PDF)
- ELL Guidelines (PDF)
- Signing Guidelines (PDF)
- Tactile Guidelines (PDF)
- Bias and Sensitivity Guidelines (PDF)
- Style Guide (PDF)
- Chapter 1 Introduction
- Chapter 2 Validity
- Chapter 3 Item Development
- Chapter 4 Test Design
- Chapter 5 Test Fairness
- Chapter 6 Pilot Test and Special Studies
- Chapter 7 Field Test Design, Sampling, and Administration
- Chapter 8 Field Test Data Steps and Classical Test Analyses
- Chapter 9 Field Test IRT Scaling and Linking Analyses
- Chapter 10 Achievement Level Setting